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glossary of terms relating to textile and knitting fabric
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glossary of terms relating to textile and knitting fabric
glossary

> KNITTING

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The knitted fabric is a material with interlaced loops called also knitted fabric (example: knitwears). It differs from the other textiles usually composed of by a criss-crop of warp yarns and by weft yarns, because it is constituted of a single rolled up thread by curling on itself. All the textile fibers can be knitted. There is an important variety of points and motives (fancy stitch, knitted Jacquard).
The knitted fabric production is also named by the term hosiery. These knitted fabrics are easily dismantable and the most known is the Jersey but there is also an interlock, ribs, etc.... These stitches are frequently used in underwear, T-shirts, pullovers, socks, etc.

> JERSEY

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Asymmetric knitted fabric which both faces present different aspects. It is the simplest binding which we can realize with this technique. Jersey is mainly used by the clothing industry . Jersey can be realized in cotton, linen, viscose, polyester, polyamide, etc....

> VISIBLE COTTON FLEECE       Two threads are necessary to make a row of stiches. The back side of this knitting Jersey owns threads said " of chain ". They form floated lengths which can be scratched. This knitted fabric is called "visible" because the binding points of the warp thread are perceptible on the right side.

> INVISIBLE COTTON FLEECE Three threads are necessary to realize a stich course. A warp thread, a ground thread, a binding thread. The binding points of the warp thread are no longer visible on the right side.

> PIQUE        Stitches are loaded in staggered row and give an aspect of relief on the right side of the knitted fabric

> JERSEY JACQUARD OR FLOATING THREADS 

The aspect of the material is in Jersey but on the back side of the knitted fabric the threads not being a part of the motive on the right side of the material pass in the form of a floating thread.
By the fact of the relative quality of this technique the motives must be small to avoid a too long floating thread on the back side of the material.

> JACQUARD DOUBLE KNIT FABRIC

       This technology uses both needle beds of the knitting machine. In the case of the piqué stitch, back side of the knitting shows a regular “dotted” aspect in color. In the case of light Jacquard, back side of the knitting give a random wefted aspect.

> JACQUARD DOUBLE KNIT FABRIC DOUBLE FACE

      
The material shows a reversible motive in positive negative. It has the particularity to be consisted of two thicknesses of Jersey separated in places and connected with others according to the graphics of the motive. Often treated in two colors, he can however have on both faces a different motive.

> LOOP
      For classic loop Jersey , two threads are used : one for the bottom, generally, in polyamide or polyester, the other one for the cotton loop. Various heights of loops exist. The velvet aspect can be obtained by treatment of finish said of shaving, (cutting of the head of the loop ).

> INTERLOCK
      Both faces are identical. It is made on double needle bed knitting machine - Needles are positioned face to face.

> RIB 1X1
      Both faces are identical. Very stretchable in the direction of rows. Needles are placed in staggered row.

> RIB 2X2
      The knitted fabric is obtained by the regular deletion of needles on both double needle bed parts of the knitting machine. This has the effect to give a ribbed aspect onto both faces. We can possibly incorporate in it some elastane to increase the elasticity of the stitch.

> DOUBLE FACE

      Two Jerseys put back to back are bound between them by common stitches or by an independent thread.

> GLUE
      Action to glue together two fabrics back against back.

> ELASTHANE
      The elastane is known in the Anglo-Saxon countries under the name of Spandex.
The LYCRA ® is the trademark of elastane fiber by duPont of Nemours. This material derived from the polyurethane is more resistant than the latex. More and more textile items contain elastane in their composition.


> COTTON

      The cotton is a vegetable fiber which surrounds the seeds of cotton plants. This fiber is generally transformed into thread which will be knitted to make fabrics. The cotton is the most important natural fibers produced in the world (near half of the world consumption of textile fibers).

> ORGANIC COTTON
(stemming from the organic agriculture)
      The biological cotton is cultivated without artificial fertilizers nor pesticides on an organic compost. The organic agriculture maintains the healthy and productive ground durably by the use of natural fertilizers, to protect durably grounds.


> LINEN

      The cultivated linen is an annual plant of the family of Linaceae mainly cultivated for its fibers, but also for its oleaginous seeds. The fibers of the linen allow to make ropes, fabric. The linen is one of the rare European vegetable textile fibers. It has the particularity to be a long fiber (several tens of centimeters), with regard to the short fibers (the cotton, the hemp) or medium sized (the wool).

> WOOL
     The word wool is collectively used to indicate the keratinous fibers of ovine origin used in the textile production. We indicate by "wool" the fibers of the sheep as well as the fibers of the other animals (but in this last case we always call these textiles by their name) whose fleece consists of keratinous fibers such as the Angora goat (whose fibers of fleece are indicated by " wool mohair "), the albino rabbit or the angora rabbit (whose fibers of fleece are indicated by "Angora"), goat said cashmere (whose fibers of fleece are indicated by the same term "cashmere"), the lama, the alpaca, the guanaco, goat cashgora, domestic camel, yak etc. The wool is used in all the domains of the textile: knitting, woven garments, hosiery knitted fabrics, furnishing fabrics.

> SILK
      The word wool is collectively used to indicate the keratinous fibers of ovine origin used in the textile production. We indicate by "wool" the fibers of the sheep as well as the fibers of the other animals (but in this last case we always call these textiles by their name) whose fleece consists of keratinous fibers such as the Angora goat (whose fibers of fleece are indicated by " wool mohair "), the albino rabbit or the angora rabbit (whose fibers of fleece are indicated by "Angora"), goat said cashmere (whose fibers of fleece are indicated by the same term "cashmere"), the lama, the alpaca, the guanaco, goat cashgora, domestic camel, yak etc. The wool is used in all the domains of the textile: knitting, woven garments, hosiery knitted fabrics, furnishing fabrics.

> VISCOSE
      The viscose is an artificial fiber obtained by transformation of the cellulose of vegetables or wood.

> VISCOSE OF BAMBOO
      Same process as the viscose. Transformation of the cellulose of bamboo.

> MODAL
      The modal is a fiber extracted from some wooden cellulose, natural raw material. It is soft, flexible and silky, for a high comfort. It has the particularity to remain flexible and soft even at the end of several washes. The modal is particularly absorbent and breathing. The modal has an analogy of behavior comparable to the viscose. Its aspect is brilliant, matt or even colored in the mass.


> POLYESTER
      Synthetic material, resistant, flexible thread, with an easy maintenance and having a very good thermal memory (uncreasable, wrinkle permanent, pleating). The polyester is mostly used to manufacture synthetic textile fibers, which the most known are the Tergal and the Dacron. It is the synthetic fiber the most produced in the world. It represents 70 % of the synthetic fibers used in the garment industry. Its use is very wide-spread in mixture with other fibers, in particular with the cotton, its applications are diversified in the industry.


> POLYAMIDE
      Polyamides are polymers. Synthetic materials, resistant, flexible threads, and relatively elastic, with easy maintenance.
Examples: Meryl, Tactel.



> Certifications Control Union

      Control Union has a network of independent subsidiaries and specialized in the inspection, analysis, certification and check of conformity. Our threads of ecru cotton, stemming from the organic agriculture, are certified Control Union.


> Certifications ICEA
      The purpose shown by this charter is to promote the use of raw materials stemming from the organic agriculture, to banish from this one some polluting, allergenic, irritating or dangerous compounds for the human health, to protect the environment by avoiding multi-packaging and manufacturing processes which are generative of pollution.
Our chiné cotton threads, stemming from the organic agriculture, are certified ICEA.



> Certifications OCIA

     Certification of the biological farms and the biological food.
Our dyed cotton threads, stemming from the organic agriculture, are certified OCIA.

> Certifications L'Oeko-Tex® Standard 100
       Oeko-Tex®

Standard 100 is a system of control and uniform certification all around the world for the raw, semi-finished and finished textile products of all the stages of transformation.

The controls on noxious substances according to Oeko-Tex ® Standard 100 are always based on the use that are made with the textiles.

The main rule which applies is thus:
The more the contact of a textile with the skin is intense (and the more the skin is sensitive), the more the requirements in terms of human ecology are high.

 

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